In order for our brain to function properly, excitatory and inhibitory signaling must be properly balanced. This is where nerve cells known as interneurons come into play. A certain type of interneuron that releases the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic interneurons) acts as ‘brakes for the brain’, making sure that this essential organ regulating all bodily functions is not overstimulated. Loss or dysfunction of interneurons in the cortex is implicated in several brain disorders such as neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Our group wants to understand why this is the case by using advanced technology to generate interneurons from novel cell sources.